Improved patient access to specialized medical care and increased use of target therapies in oncology are expanding the multiple myeloma (MM) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) markets in Brazil and Mexico. Moreover, recent approvals and upcoming marketing authorizations will strengthen the treatment armamentarium for these diseases and provide further therapy options. However, premium-priced agents for MM and NHL (such as Janssen’s Velcade) face differing degrees of coverage and use restrictions within and across each country. In addition, in the past two years, Brazil’s National Agency of Health Regulation (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, ANVISA) has denied approval of some agents for MM and NHL in Brazil, while in Mexico, others have received a conditional opinion from COFEPRIS’s New Molecules Committee. These market access hurdles showcase the increasingly rigorous regulatory and reimbursement environments in these countries.