Market Access Opportunities for Novel Therapies Targeting Multi-Drug-Resistant Pathogens Hospital-treated Gram-negative infections (GNIs) are becoming increasingly difficult to treat given rising rates of infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. As a result, many GNIs can no longer be effectively treated with antibiotics previously considered to be the most potent agents (i.e., third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems). Therefore, commercial opportunities exist for new agents that can help address the threat of drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens (GNPs). Notably, emerging broad-spectrum antibiotics such as Merck’s Zerbaxa (ceftolozane/tazobactam) and Allergan/AstraZeneca’s Avycaz (ceftazidime/avibactam) will provide therapeutic options for many of these difficult-to-treat infections, including those caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and carbapenem-resistant GNPs. However, in highly cost-sensitive markets such as those found in the EU5, marketers of novel antibiotics will need to provide clear evidence of clinical improvements and/or cost benefits over well-entrenched, generically available standard-of-care agents, to receive a favorable health technology assessment (HTA) and command premium pricing.