Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder – Access & Reimbursement – Detailed, Expanded Analysis (US)

Attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder that can persist through adolescence and into adulthood, although diagnosis and treatment initiation can occur at any age. Treatment options include a mix of stimulants (e.g., methylphenidates, amphetamines) and nonstimulants (e.g., dopaminergic/noradrenergic agents, adrenergic receptor agonists), many of which are available generically. Despite many available—and largely efficacious—pharmacological treatments, a large proportion of patients have inadequate control of their ADHD symptoms, including over the long term. Thus, novel agents continue to launch in this large and genetic market, seeking to provide better or longer control of symptoms and are largely used in later lines of therapy. The expanding presence of generic drugs has given payers more leverage to control drug treatment costs in ADHD. Given this challenging market for novel brands, understanding the current and expected influence of clinical metrics and value-for-dollar on market access and medical practice is key for developers of new therapies for ADHD.


  • In this mature and highly generic treatment landscape, what actions can marketers of therapies for ADHD take to gain market access and ensure uptake?
  • How do payer policies affect the prescribing of branded psychostimulants (e.g., Supernus’s Qelbree, Corium’s Azstarys, Aytu Biopharma’s CotemplaXR-ODT) in this genericized market?
  • To which of their ADHD patients do physicians anticipate prescribing Otsuka Pharmaceuticals’ centanafadine, Arbor Pharmaceuticals’ amphetamine sulfate-ODT, and Noven’s dexamfetamine transdermal patch? How do payers expect to reimburse these therapies?


Geography: United States

Primary research: Survey of 100 U.S. PCPs, psychiatrists, pediatricians, and pediatric psychiatrists, survey of 30 U.S. MCO PDs / MDs

Fingertip formulary: Formulary coverage and restrictions data for ADHD therapies by commercial plans covering approximately 169.5 million lives nationally.

Key marketed drugs covered: Adzenys XR-ODT, Dyanavel XR, Evekeo ODT, Mydayis, Vyvanse, Azstarys, Cotempla XR-ODT, Jornay PM, Quillichew ER, Qelbree, Xelstrym

Emerging therapies: Centanafadine (Otsuka), CTx-1301 (Cingulate), solriamfetol (Axsome)

Content highlights:

Reimbursement and contracting.

Access and prescribing.

Opportunities and challenges for emerging therapies.

Disease-specific special topics:

  • Impact of the mixed amphetamine salts IR shortage on access and reimbursement in ADHD
  • Assessing physician and payer attitudes toward digital therapeutics (DTx) for ADHD


U.S. Access & Reimbursement provides integrated brand- and disease-level insight on reimbursement dynamics and the impact of U.S. payer policy on physician prescribing behavior in the market access environment. Each report includes up-to-date analyses of drug coverage and restriction policies as well as payer and prescriber perspectives on key marketed drugs and their receptivity to emerging therapies.

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