As oncology increasingly moves toward personalized approaches to therapy, the use of predictive biomarkers will become more important. A plethora of biomarker-driven brands are already available for several oncology indications, including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and non-small-cell lung cancer, and many more such therapies are in the pipeline. Biomarkers enable the selection of patient populations likely to respond to a particular therapy and thus limit treatment costs by preventing a therapy’s uptake among patients unlikely to respond to treatment. As a result, hospital and clinician funds can be allocated more efficiently. The drug labels that restrict treatment to biomarker-positive patients also allow tighter control of spending, especially in the cost-conscious EU5 countries.