Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is an autoimmune, rheumatologic disease characterized by joint inflammation, pain, and stiffness. JIA encompasses multiple forms of chronic arthritis in children. The JIA patient population is subdivided into several subpopulations that are distinguished by serologic and genetic markers and systemic manifestations. The burden of the disease can be exacerbated by progressive deterioration from the arthritis, which affects some patients for life. Current treatment options are disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), both of which aim to control pain, improve function, and reduce inflammation. However, agents with improved efficacy and a milder side-effect profile, to facilitate chronic therapy in particular, remain an unmet need in all JIA subpopulations.