Renal anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although treatment options exist, physicians, patients, and healthcare systems have concerns about their limitations. Delivery, safety issues, and tightening healthcare budgets have resulted in increased scrutiny of the effectiveness and tolerability of renal anemia therapies such as intravenous (IV) iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). This content examines the management of dialysis and of mid- to late-stage CKD patients from the perspective of nephrologists. It provides a detailed and expanded analysis of the market dynamics and insight into practice patterns, physician attitudes and perceptions, and current and projected use of therapies such as Epogen, Aranesp, Procrit, Injectafer, Venofer, Mircera, and Triferic. Also discussed are patients’ persistency and compliance with renal anemia medications and the drivers of and obstacles to these agents’ use.