This report leverages physician insights, as well as a year’s worth of patient chart data, to provide the most up-to-date information about dialysis patient care in the EU5, including patient demographics and the use of laboratory assessments and medications. Our in-depth analysis of dialysis medications spans a wide range of variables, including product initiation, dosing, switching, and concomitant therapy; coverage includes erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), IV iron, oral iron, phosphate binders, nutritional vitamin D (NVD), active vitamin D (AVD), and Amgen’s Mimpara (cinacalcet). By comparing what nephrologists report about patient care with actual patient records, we uncover gaps in intended versus actual care and reveal opportunities for the expanded use of current and emerging therapies. In our new section on products in development, we cover nine emerging therapies. This section allows manufactures to see profiles of those patients who would be considered to start on the emerging therapy, assuming that it receives regulatory approval.