Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects approximately 26 million people in the United States. While there are multiple prescription therapies that are available for treating the associated symptoms, nothing is available today that is indicated for delaying progression of the disease. However, renal anemia and hyperphosphatemia, or elevated serum phosphorous, are two primary complications of CKD that are treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and phosphate binders, respectively. Using national patient-level claims data, this report analyzes physician adherence to the treatment guidelines by exploring the use of ESAs in the newly diagnosed and recently treated late-stage CKD nondialysis (CKD-ND) patient population. Among the newly diagnosed patients, the report provides a quantitative analysis of treatment patterns and share by line of ESA therapy, as well as progression between lines, and duration of treatment on each line. Among recently treated patients, the report quantifies a drug’s source of business compared with its competitors and details which drugs precede others through an analysis of add-versus-switch patterns for both the use of ESAs in late-stage CKD and the use of phosphate binders in the dialysis patient population. Additional analyses explore persistency and compliance by brand.