For the estimated 4.9 million people in the United States who suffer from atrial fibrillation (AF), there are a number of different treatment approaches that can be utilized, each with a wide range of available pharmacological options. The AHA/ACCF/HRS guidelines recommend the implementation of rate control therapy to control heart rate, plus rhythm control treatment to establish a normal sinus rhythm for appropriate patients. The use of rate and/or rhythm control is usually accompanied by antithrombotic therapy for stroke risk reduction in at-risk patients. Using national patient-level claims data, this report analyzes physician adherence to the treatment guidelines by exploring the use of key therapies in newly diagnosed and recently treated AF populations. Concerning newly diagnosed patients, the report provides a quantitative analysis of treatment patterns and patient share by line of therapy, as well as progression between lines, duration of treatment on each line, and use of concomitant treatment. With respect to recently treated patients, the report quantifies a drug’s source of business compared with its competitors and details which drugs precede others through an analysis of add-versus-switch patterns. Additional analyses explore persistency and compliancy by brand.