For the estimated 4.6 million people in the United States who suffer from atrial fibrillation (AF), several treatment approaches and a wide range of pharmacological treatment options are available. The American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC)/Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) guidelines focus on using rate control therapy to control heart rate, plus rhythm control treatment to establish a normal sinus rhythm for appropriate patients, in addition to antithrombotic therapy for stroke risk reduction. Using national patient-level claims data, this report analyzes physician adherence to the treatment guidelines by exploring the use of key therapies in the newly diagnosed and recently treated AF populations. Among the newly diagnosed patients, the report provides a quantitative analysis of treatment patterns and share by line of therapy, as well as progression between lines, duration of treatment on each line, and use of concomitant treatment. Among recently treated patients, the report quantifies a drug’s source of business compared with its competitors and details which drugs precede others through an analysis of add-versus-switch patterns. Additional analyses explore persistency and compliancy by brand.